Porcelain fused to metal
The long-term reliability of PFM can hide metal abutments due to layering of opaque porcelain. Various gold alloy content alloys are available.
This metal-free option is strong, aesthetic and opaque enough to hide metal abutments beneath it.
Lithium disilicate offers superb aesthetics but has structural limitations. If used on metal abutment, opaquing is needed.
For optimal aesthetics anteriorly, IPS emax® should be placed over a zirconia abutment.
(eg. Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM Restorative, CERAMAGE®)
These offer a more resilient material and cushion the implant against occlusal forces
Some ceramic-composite hybrids can be:
applied to a titanium or cobalt chromium abutment
bonded onto a titanium base or
used as a cement-retained crown on a zirconia abutment
Hybrids can be readily repaired.
Fully milled zirconia
A high-strength metal-free material which is produced using a CAD/CAM process, allowing excellent marginal adaptation. Care with adjustment is required. Careful case selection is necessary to minimise wear of the opposing dentition.